(Reliability tests, Failure analysis, Process characterization, Mechanical testing, Chemical Analysis)
Reliable Test and Analysis Services
We offer Reliability Test Services to a wide range of customers within the (electronics) industry. We have continuously expanded our in-house reliability lab. Our extensive offering as independent lab combined with our flexible and experienced staff is highly rewarded by our customers.
Optical microscopy is a technique employed to closely view a sample through the magnification of a lens with visible light. This is the traditional form of microscopy, which was first invented before the 18th century and is still in use today.
Today we are using performant cammera assigned to a optical microscop in order to be able to see all the details.
We are using several electronic microscops, each one suitable for a certain job.
Resistance Meters for Production Lines and MRO
We can measure the winding resistance of devices such as motors and transformers, the contact resistance of power contacts (relays and switches), and the DC resistance of fuses, resistors, and substrates such as conductive rubber and sheets. We are using a portable solution for measuring resistance values ranging in magnitude from microohms to megohms, making it ideal for use in production, maintenance, repair and operation of large equipment.
An oscilloscope is an instrument that graphically displays electrical signals and shows how those signals change over time. Engineers use oscilloscopes to measure electrical phenomena and quickly test, verify, and debug their circuit designs. The primary function of an oscilloscope is to measure voltage waves, but not only. There are a lot of signals detected such as:
- The time and voltage values of a signal.
- The frequency of an oscillating signal.
- The “moving parts” of a circuit represented by the signal.
- The frequency with which a particular portion of the signal occurs relative to other portions.
- Whether or not a malfunctioning component is distorting the signal.
- How much of a signal is direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC).
- How much of the signal is noise and whether the noise is changing with time.
Manufacturers use industrial radiography to check for cracks or flaws in materials. Industrial radiography uses x-ray and gamma radiation to show flaws that cannot be detected by the naked eye.
In industrial radiography there are several imaging methods available, techniques to display the final image, i.e. Film Radiography, Real Time Radiography (RTR), Computed Tomography (CT), Digital Radiography (DR), and Computed Radiography (CR).
Industrial radiography for non-destructive testing is used to inspect, among others, concrete and a wide variety of welds, such as those in gas and water pipelines, storage tanks and structural elements. It can identify cracks or flaws that may not be otherwise visible. These characteristics have made non-destructive testing a key tool for quality control, safety and reliability.
Mechanical measurement 3D
3D measurement is a metrology process that uses different types of 3D measurement tools, such as 3D scanners, to collect 3D data from physical objects, such as their shapes, textures, geometries and colours.
3D measurement can be carried out using traditional equipment, including fixed coordinate measurement machines (CMMS) and basic tools, such as calipers and gauges. However, there are many disadvantages to these approaches.
Depending on the tool that is used, they can be limited in measurement speed, mobility, coverage and accuracy. They cannot be incorporated in any automated workflows, such as automated quality control processes.
They are dependent on users’ skill and efficiency; in a tight labour market, it can even be difficult to find and train the right staff for more complicated methods.
On the flip side, 3D scanners overcome all of these challenges thanks to their unbeatable performance with respect to measurement speed and portability as well as their data accuracy, reliability and repeatability. Some optical CMM scanners can even be used in quality control applications.
In mechanics and thermodynamics, thermal stress is mechanical stress created by any change in temperature of a material. These stresses can lead to fracturing or plastic deformationdepending on the other variables of heating, which include material types and constraints. Temperature gradients, thermal expansion or contraction and thermal shocks are things that can lead to thermal stress. This type of stress is highly dependent on the thermal expansion coefficient which varies from material to material. In general, the greater the temperature change, the higher the level of stress that can occur. Thermal shock can result from a rapid change in temperature, resulting in cracking or shattering.
A pull test is the most common test to perform on a bond tester. It is performed by applying an upward force under gold, aluminum or copper wires or ribbons and effectively pulling it away from the substrate moving the Z-stage until the bond breaks (destructive) or a pre-defined force is reached (non-destructive).
- Cross sectional shape of thin and thick wires
- Small geometry (ultra fine pitch)
- Ribbons either round or rectangular
XRF (X-ray fluorescence) is a non-destructive analytical technique used to determine the elemental composition of materials. XRF analyzers determine the chemistry of a sample by measuring the fluorescent (or secondary) X-ray emitted from a sample when it is excited by a primary X-ray source. Each of the elements present in a sample produces a set of characteristic fluorescent X-rays (“a fingerprint”) that is unique for that specific element, which is why XRF spectroscopy is an excellent technology for qualitative and quantitative analysis of material composition.
XRF Analyzers identify alloys, detect tramp elements, deliver geochemical data, analyze precious metals, and determine coating weight and plating thickness, to ensure material chemistry specifications are met.
- Oil and gas—for positive material identification (PMI) of piping material, which is critical where flow accelerated corrosion, or sulfidic corrosion, is a concern
- Metal fabricating—for non-destructive elemental analysis to ensure that no incorrect or out-of-specification metals or alloys enter the manufacturing process
- Automotive & aerospace—for incoming inspection and quality control of metallic and coated parts
- Scrap metal recycling—for fast and accurate sorting of scrap metals, which is essential to enhance both workflow efficiency and profitability
- Precious metal recycling—for accurately determining grade of precious metals and to prevent deleterious metals from entering the recycling process
- Mining & exploration—for quickly identifying and recovering the most economically viable resources
- Construction & environmental engineering—for screening risk assessment, hazardous site modeling, and remediation quality control
Micro sectioning (cross sectioning)
Cross sectioning is also known as dissection and micro sectioning. It entails cutting a circuit board to retrieve an area of interest, potting the targeted item in epoxy, and grinding/polishing to a particular plane in order to see internal features of the circuit board, solder joint, or component.
Cross sectioning is done as part of component replacement studies, problem diagnostics, field failure studies, product characterization, production issue studies, solder joint crack detection, void measurement, via examination, plate thickness measurement, and PCB evaluation. For example, automotive companies require DV and PV thermal cycle testing that tends to create fatigue cracks in solder joints; cross sectioning is performed to identify and measure those cracks.
The technical procedure for cross sectioning is given in ICP-TM-650 2.1.1, but the evaluation begins further upstream when our customer selects several, or many, items on the PCBA that they feel should be evaluated. The selection is based on the soldering process used, the size of the component, the location on the PCBA, and their experience with the PCBA. At least one component representing each type of solder joint is selected, including discrete SMT resistors or capacitors, BGAs, QFNs, vias, through-board mounted components, etc. The selected components are called targets, and the intended cross section plane through a target component is called the target plane. The target plane traverses a particular row of the BGA, or a pair of QFN terminals, or the center of a discrete component.
The circuit board must be cut with a diamond saw to separate target components prior to potting and polishing. The saw cut is always made outside, never through, the target component. The target component is placed in a small cup (25mm, 30mm, 40mm and 50mm diameter cups are common sizes) which is then backfilled with epoxy under vacuum to create a “mount”, or as it is sometimes called, a “puck”. The hardened epoxy stabilizes the target component for handling and grinding. The mount is ground nearly to the target plane using successively finer grits of silicon carbide grinding papers, and then may be fine-ground using diamond on a cloth.
Procedures at this stage vary with the laboratory and the component being cross sectioned, but generally the mount is processed through successively finer grits of diamond, alumina, and/or silica abrasive. The use of finer and finer abrasive assures there is no smearing or scratches remaining on the polished surface, and no material damage below the surface. At this point the polished target plane can be etched, if desired, to reveal metallurgical features prior to inspecting the cross section using optical or electron microscopes.
Chromaticity test in lab and field
A spectrophotometer is used to determine the chromaticity value of water samples by establishing the correlation between the absorbance value of a standard chromaticity solution at a characteristic wavelength or the peak area of the absorption spectrum and the chromaticity value.
Colorimetry is a scientific technique that is used to determine the concentration of colored compounds in solutions by the application of the Beer–Lambert law, which states that the concentration of a solute is proportional to the absorbance.
Luminance test in lab and field
Luminance is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction. It describes the amount of light that passes through, is emitted from, or is reflected from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle.